Date Histogram Aggregationedit

A multi-bucket aggregation similar to the histogram except it can only be applied on date values. Since dates are represented in elasticsearch internally as long values, it is possible to use the normal histogram on dates as well, though accuracy will be compromised. The reason for this is in the fact that time based intervals are not fixed (think of leap years and on the number of days in a month). For this reason, we need special support for time based data. From a functionality perspective, this histogram supports the same features as the normal histogram. The main difference is that the interval can be specified by date/time expressions.

Requesting bucket intervals of a month.

POST /sales/_search?size=0
{
    "aggs" : {
        "sales_over_time" : {
            "date_histogram" : {
                "field" : "date",
                "interval" : "month"
            }
        }
    }
}

Available expressions for interval: year, quarter, month, week, day, hour, minute, second

Time values can also be specified via abbreviations supported by time units parsing. Note that fractional time values are not supported, but you can address this by shifting to another time unit (e.g., 1.5h could instead be specified as 90m).

POST /sales/_search?size=0
{
    "aggs" : {
        "sales_over_time" : {
            "date_histogram" : {
                "field" : "date",
                "interval" : "90m"
            }
        }
    }
}

Keysedit

Internally, a date is represented as a 64 bit number representing a timestamp in milliseconds-since-the-epoch. These timestamps are returned as the bucket keys. The key_as_string is the same timestamp converted to a formatted date string using the format specified with the format parameter:

Tip

If no format is specified, then it will use the first date format specified in the field mapping.

POST /sales/_search?size=0
{
    "aggs" : {
        "sales_over_time" : {
            "date_histogram" : {
                "field" : "date",
                "interval" : "1M",
                "format" : "yyyy-MM-dd" 
            }
        }
    }
}

Supports expressive date format pattern

Response:

{
    ...
    "aggregations": {
        "sales_over_time": {
            "buckets": [
                {
                    "key_as_string": "2015-01-01",
                    "key": 1420070400000,
                    "doc_count": 3
                },
                {
                    "key_as_string": "2015-02-01",
                    "key": 1422748800000,
                    "doc_count": 2
                },
                {
                    "key_as_string": "2015-03-01",
                    "key": 1425168000000,
                    "doc_count": 2
                }
            ]
        }
    }
}

Time Zoneedit

Date-times are stored in Elasticsearch in UTC. By default, all bucketing and rounding is also done in UTC. The time_zone parameter can be used to indicate that bucketing should use a different time zone.

Time zones may either be specified as an ISO 8601 UTC offset (e.g. +01:00 or -08:00) or as a timezone id, an identifier used in the TZ database like America/Los_Angeles.

Consider the following example:

PUT my_index/log/1?refresh
{
  "date": "2015-10-01T00:30:00Z"
}

PUT my_index/log/2?refresh
{
  "date": "2015-10-01T01:30:00Z"
}

GET my_index/_search?size=0
{
  "aggs": {
    "by_day": {
      "date_histogram": {
        "field":     "date",
        "interval":  "day"
      }
    }
  }
}

UTC is used if no time zone is specified, which would result in both of these documents being placed into the same day bucket, which starts at midnight UTC on 1 October 2015:

{
  ...
  "aggregations": {
    "by_day": {
      "buckets": [
        {
          "key_as_string": "2015-10-01T00:00:00.000Z",
          "key":           1443657600000,
          "doc_count":     2
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

If a time_zone of -01:00 is specified, then midnight starts at one hour before midnight UTC:

GET my_index/_search?size=0
{
  "aggs": {
    "by_day": {
      "date_histogram": {
        "field":     "date",
        "interval":  "day",
        "time_zone": "-01:00"
      }
    }
  }
}

Now the first document falls into the bucket for 30 September 2015, while the second document falls into the bucket for 1 October 2015:

{
  ...
  "aggregations": {
    "by_day": {
      "buckets": [
        {
          "key_as_string": "2015-09-30T00:00:00.000-01:00", 
          "key": 1443574800000,
          "doc_count": 1
        },
        {
          "key_as_string": "2015-10-01T00:00:00.000-01:00", 
          "key": 1443661200000,
          "doc_count": 1
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The key_as_string value represents midnight on each day in the specified time zone.

Warning

When using time zones that follow DST (daylight savings time) changes, buckets close to the moment when those changes happen can have slightly different sizes than would be expected from the used interval. For example, consider a DST start in the CET time zone: on 27 March 2016 at 2am, clocks were turned forward 1 hour to 3am local time. When using day as interval, the bucket covering that day will only hold data for 23 hours instead of the usual 24 hours for other buckets. The same is true for shorter intervals like e.g. 12h. Here, we will have only a 11h bucket on the morning of 27 March when the DST shift happens.

Offsetedit

The offset parameter is used to change the start value of each bucket by the specified positive (+) or negative offset (-) duration, such as 1h for an hour, or 1d for a day. See Time unitsedit for more possible time duration options.

For instance, when using an interval of day, each bucket runs from midnight to midnight. Setting the offset parameter to +6h would change each bucket to run from 6am to 6am:

PUT my_index/log/1?refresh
{
  "date": "2015-10-01T05:30:00Z"
}

PUT my_index/log/2?refresh
{
  "date": "2015-10-01T06:30:00Z"
}

GET my_index/_search?size=0
{
  "aggs": {
    "by_day": {
      "date_histogram": {
        "field":     "date",
        "interval":  "day",
        "offset":    "+6h"
      }
    }
  }
}

Instead of a single bucket starting at midnight, the above request groups the documents into buckets starting at 6am:

{
  ...
  "aggregations": {
    "by_day": {
      "buckets": [
        {
          "key_as_string": "2015-09-30T06:00:00.000Z",
          "key": 1443592800000,
          "doc_count": 1
        },
        {
          "key_as_string": "2015-10-01T06:00:00.000Z",
          "key": 1443679200000,
          "doc_count": 1
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}
Note

The start offset of each bucket is calculated after the time_zone adjustments have been made.

Keyed Responseedit

Setting the keyed flag to true will associate a unique string key with each bucket and return the ranges as a hash rather than an array:

POST /sales/_search?size=0
{
    "aggs" : {
        "sales_over_time" : {
            "date_histogram" : {
                "field" : "date",
                "interval" : "1M",
                "format" : "yyyy-MM-dd",
                "keyed": true
            }
        }
    }
}

Response:

{
    ...
    "aggregations": {
        "sales_over_time": {
            "buckets": {
                "2015-01-01": {
                    "key_as_string": "2015-01-01",
                    "key": 1420070400000,
                    "doc_count": 3
                },
                "2015-02-01": {
                    "key_as_string": "2015-02-01",
                    "key": 1422748800000,
                    "doc_count": 2
                },
                "2015-03-01": {
                    "key_as_string": "2015-03-01",
                    "key": 1425168000000,
                    "doc_count": 2
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Scriptsedit

Like with the normal histogram, both document level scripts and value level scripts are supported. It is also possible to control the order of the returned buckets using the order settings and filter the returned buckets based on a min_doc_count setting (by default all buckets between the first bucket that matches documents and the last one are returned). This histogram also supports the extended_bounds setting, which enables extending the bounds of the histogram beyond the data itself (to read more on why you’d want to do that please refer to the explanation here).

Missing valueedit

The missing parameter defines how documents that are missing a value should be treated. By default they will be ignored but it is also possible to treat them as if they had a value.

POST /sales/_search?size=0
{
    "aggs" : {
        "sale_date" : {
             "date_histogram" : {
                 "field" : "date",
                 "interval": "year",
                 "missing": "2000/01/01" 
             }
         }
    }
}

Documents without a value in the publish_date field will fall into the same bucket as documents that have the value 2000-01-01.

Orderedit

By default the returned buckets are sorted by their key ascending, though the order behaviour can be controlled using the order setting. Supports the same order functionality as the Terms Aggregation.

Warning

Deprecated in 6.0.0.

Use _key instead of _time to order buckets by their dates/keys

Use of a script to aggregate by day of the weekedit

There are some cases where date histogram can’t help us, like for example, when we need to aggregate the results by day of the week. In this case to overcome the problem, we can use a script that returns the day of the week:

POST /sales/_search?size=0
{
    "aggs": {
        "dayOfWeek": {
            "terms": {
                "script": {
                    "lang": "painless",
                    "source": "doc['date'].value.dayOfWeek"
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Response:

{
  ...
  "aggregations": {
    "dayOfWeek": {
      "doc_count_error_upper_bound": 0,
      "sum_other_doc_count": 0,
      "buckets": [
        {
          "key": "7",
          "doc_count": 4
        },
        {
          "key": "4",
          "doc_count": 3
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

The response will contain all the buckets having as key the relative day of the week: 1 for Monday, 2 for Tuesday… 7 for Sunday.