Numeric field types
editNumeric field typesedit
The following numeric types are supported:

A signed 64bit integer with a minimum value of 

A signed 32bit integer with a minimum value of 

A signed 16bit integer with a minimum value of 

A signed 8bit integer with a minimum value of 

A doubleprecision 64bit IEEE 754 floating point number, restricted to finite values. 

A singleprecision 32bit IEEE 754 floating point number, restricted to finite values. 

A halfprecision 16bit IEEE 754 floating point number, restricted to finite values. 

A floating point number that is backed by a 

An unsigned 64bit integer with a minimum value of 0 and a maximum value of 
Below is an example of configuring a mapping with numeric fields:
resp = client.indices.create( index="myindex000001", body={ "mappings": { "properties": { "number_of_bytes": {"type": "integer"}, "time_in_seconds": {"type": "float"}, "price": {"type": "scaled_float", "scaling_factor": 100}, } } }, ) print(resp)
response = client.indices.create( index: 'myindex000001', body: { mappings: { properties: { number_of_bytes: { type: 'integer' }, time_in_seconds: { type: 'float' }, price: { type: 'scaled_float', scaling_factor: 100 } } } } ) puts response
res, err := es.Indices.Create( "myindex000001", es.Indices.Create.WithBody(strings.NewReader(`{ "mappings": { "properties": { "number_of_bytes": { "type": "integer" }, "time_in_seconds": { "type": "float" }, "price": { "type": "scaled_float", "scaling_factor": 100 } } } }`)), ) fmt.Println(res, err)
PUT myindex000001 { "mappings": { "properties": { "number_of_bytes": { "type": "integer" }, "time_in_seconds": { "type": "float" }, "price": { "type": "scaled_float", "scaling_factor": 100 } } } }
The double
, float
and half_float
types consider that 0.0
and
+0.0
are different values. As a consequence, doing a term
query on
0.0
will not match +0.0
and viceversa. Same is true for range queries:
if the upper bound is 0.0
then +0.0
will not match, and if the lower
bound is +0.0
then 0.0
will not match.
Which type should I use?edit
As far as integer types (byte
, short
, integer
and long
) are concerned,
you should pick the smallest type which is enough for your usecase. This will
help indexing and searching be more efficient. Note however that storage is
optimized based on the actual values that are stored, so picking one type over
another one will have no impact on storage requirements.
For floatingpoint types, it is often more efficient to store floatingpoint
data into an integer using a scaling factor, which is what the scaled_float
type does under the hood. For instance, a price
field could be stored in a
scaled_float
with a scaling_factor
of 100
. All APIs would work as if
the field was stored as a double, but under the hood Elasticsearch would be
working with the number of cents, price*100
, which is an integer. This is
mostly helpful to save disk space since integers are way easier to compress
than floating points. scaled_float
is also fine to use in order to trade
accuracy for disk space. For instance imagine that you are tracking cpu
utilization as a number between 0
and 1
. It usually does not matter much
whether cpu utilization is 12.7%
or 13%
, so you could use a scaled_float
with a scaling_factor
of 100
in order to round cpu utilization to the
closest percent in order to save space.
If scaled_float
is not a good fit, then you should pick the smallest type
that is enough for the usecase among the floatingpoint types: double
,
float
and half_float
. Here is a table that compares these types in order
to help make a decision.
Type  Minimum value  Maximum value  Significant bits / digits 
Example precision loss 
















Mapping numeric identifiers
Not all numeric data should be mapped as a numeric field data type.
Elasticsearch optimizes numeric fields, such as integer
or long
, for
range
queries. However, keyword
fields
are better for term
and other
termlevel queries.
Identifiers, such as an ISBN or a product ID, are rarely used in range
queries. However, they are often retrieved using termlevel queries.
Consider mapping a numeric identifier as a keyword
if:

You don’t plan to search for the identifier data using
range
queries. 
Fast retrieval is important.
term
query searches onkeyword
fields are often faster thanterm
searches on numeric fields.
If you’re unsure which to use, you can use a multifield to map
the data as both a keyword
and a numeric data type.
Parameters for numeric fieldsedit
The following parameters are accepted by numeric types:

coerce

Try to convert strings to numbers and truncate fractions for integers.
Accepts
true
(default) andfalse
. Not applicable forunsigned_long
. Note that this cannot be set if thescript
parameter is used. 
doc_values

Should the field be stored on disk in a columnstride fashion, so that it
can later be used for sorting, aggregations, or scripting? Accepts
true
(default) orfalse
. 
ignore_malformed

If
true
, malformed numbers are ignored. Iffalse
(default), malformed numbers throw an exception and reject the whole document. Note that this cannot be set if thescript
parameter is used. 
index

Should the field be quickly searchable? Accepts
true
(default) andfalse
. Numeric fields that only havedoc_values
enabled can also be queried, albeit slower. 
meta
 Metadata about the field.

null_value

Accepts a numeric value of the same
type
as the field which is substituted for any explicitnull
values. Defaults tonull
, which means the field is treated as missing. Note that this cannot be set if thescript
parameter is used. 
on_script_error

Defines what to do if the script defined by the
script
parameter throws an error at indexing time. Acceptsfail
(default), which will cause the entire document to be rejected, andcontinue
, which will register the field in the document’s_ignored
metadata field and continue indexing. This parameter can only be set if thescript
field is also set. 
script

If this parameter is set, then the field will index values generated
by this script, rather than reading the values directly from the
source. If a value is set for this field on the input document, then
the document will be rejected with an error.
Scripts are in the same format as their
runtime equivalent. Scripts can only be
configured on
long
anddouble
field types. 
store

Whether the field value should be stored and retrievable separately from
the
_source
field. Acceptstrue
orfalse
(default). 
time_series_dimension

(Optional, Boolean)
Marks the field as a time series dimension. Defaults to
false
.The
index.mapping.dimension_fields.limit
index setting limits the number of dimensions in an index.Dimension fields have the following constraints:

The
doc_values
andindex
mapping parameters must betrue
.  Field values cannot be an array or multivalue.
Of the numeric field types, only
byte
,short
,integer
,long
, andunsigned_long
fields support this parameter.A numeric field can’t be both a time series dimension and a time series metric.

The

time_series_metric

(Optional, string) Marks the field as a time series metric. The value is the metric type. You can’t update this parameter for existing fields.
Valid
time_series_metric
values for numeric fields
counter

A cumulative metric that only monotonically increases or resets to
0
(zero). For example, a count of errors or completed tasks. 
gauge
 A metric that represents a single numeric that can arbitrarily increase or decrease. For example, a temperature or available disk space.

null
(Default)  Not a time series metric.
For a numeric time series metric, the
doc_values
parameter must betrue
. A numeric field can’t be both a time series dimension and a time series metric. 
Parameters for scaled_float
edit
scaled_float
accepts an additional parameter:

The scaling factor to use when encoding values. Values will be multiplied
by this factor at index time and rounded to the closest long value. For
instance, a 
scaled_float
saturationedit
scaled_float
is stored as a single long
value, which is the product of multiplying the original value by the scaling factor. If the multiplication
results in a value that is outside the range of a long
, the value is saturated
to the minimum or maximum value of a long
. For example, if the scaling factor
is 100
and the value is 92233720368547758.08
, the expected value is 9223372036854775808
.
However, the value that is stored is 9223372036854775807
, the maximum value for a long
.
This can lead to unexpected results with range queries
when the scaling factor or provided float
value are exceptionally large.
Synthetic _source
edit
Synthetic _source
is Generally Available only for TSDB indices
(indices that have index.mode
set to time_series
). For other indices
synthetic _source
is in technical preview. Features in technical preview may
be changed or removed in a future release. Elastic will work to fix
any issues, but features in technical preview are not subject to the support SLA
of official GA features.
All numeric fields support synthetic
_source
in their default configuration. Synthetic _source
cannot be used
together with copy_to
, or
with doc_values
disabled.
Synthetic source always sorts numeric fields. For example:
resp = client.indices.create( index="idx", body={ "mappings": { "_source": {"mode": "synthetic"}, "properties": {"long": {"type": "long"}}, } }, ) print(resp) resp = client.index( index="idx", id="1", body={"long": [0, 0, 123466, 87612]}, ) print(resp)
response = client.indices.create( index: 'idx', body: { mappings: { _source: { mode: 'synthetic' }, properties: { long: { type: 'long' } } } } ) puts response response = client.index( index: 'idx', id: 1, body: { long: [ 0, 0, 123_466, 87_612 ] } ) puts response
PUT idx { "mappings": { "_source": { "mode": "synthetic" }, "properties": { "long": { "type": "long" } } } } PUT idx/_doc/1 { "long": [0, 0, 123466, 87612] }
Will become:
{ "long": [123466, 0, 0, 87612] }
Scaled floats will always apply their scaling factor so:
resp = client.indices.create( index="idx", body={ "mappings": { "_source": {"mode": "synthetic"}, "properties": { "f": {"type": "scaled_float", "scaling_factor": 0.01} }, } }, ) print(resp) resp = client.index( index="idx", id="1", body={"f": 123}, ) print(resp)
response = client.indices.create( index: 'idx', body: { mappings: { _source: { mode: 'synthetic' }, properties: { f: { type: 'scaled_float', scaling_factor: 0.01 } } } } ) puts response response = client.index( index: 'idx', id: 1, body: { f: 123 } ) puts response
PUT idx { "mappings": { "_source": { "mode": "synthetic" }, "properties": { "f": { "type": "scaled_float", "scaling_factor": 0.01 } } } } PUT idx/_doc/1 { "f": 123 }
Will become:
{ "f": 100.0 }