Elastic provides the foundation for the DoD’s pillars of Zero Trust Networking

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The whole point of IT systems, whether deployed via traditional methods or via modern practices (such as Agile methodologies, DevSecOps, and orchestration platforms like Kubernetes) is to make data available for business operations — whether those operations are making business decisions, identifying or troubleshooting system performance and efficiency issues, detecting bad actors, or protecting organizational assets. Unfortunately, the result is a large array of disparate data silos that were never designed to interact with each other.

What’s needed is the ability to collect and ingest data from multiple disparate sources and bring them together within a common access layer, in a format that allows cross-correlation and analysis, at scale and in near real-time. Elastic provides a uniquely powerful data collection, monitoring, and analytics platform that enables observability and security spanning all layers of the organization’s data operations.

Support for all the pillars

There are many definitions of Zero Trust, and several different combinations of the core “pillars” that cover the concepts that would enable the application ZTN to be used in a real-world way. In the end, Zero Trust Networking (ZTN) is a set of principles that spans the entire breadth of enterprise operations, while also redefining access patterns and controls on those systems. 

As an example of how confusing this can be, just within the U.S. Public Sector there are several competing reference documents, each outlining their own take on what the core principles/pillars are:

Regardless of which reference you follow, the success of ZTN depends on more than any one tool or layer; it requires them all to work in conjunction with each other at speed and scale, with a holistic comprehension of events and activity at all layers that can drive the policy decisions and enforcement. The Elastic Stack can perform the vital role of bringing together the data streams generated at the edge, through the perimeter defenses, and correlate those with the activity in and around the applications and services being accessed.

Zero Trust principles are especially powerful when used in conjunction with other approaches, such as continuous monitoring, chaos engineering, and real-time situational awareness, which is based on leveraging all available data as a strategic asset.

Let’s dive in on one of these standards and map the Elastic Stack’s capabilities to the “Zero Trust Pillars” to show how Elastic’s technology supports and enables the practical application of Zero Trust principles across the entire enterprise.

The DoD CIO’s pillars of Zero Trust

The following section describes in further detail how Elastic can be used to support and enable each of the DoD CIO’s pillars of Zero Trust, taken from the DoD Zero Trust Reference Architecture document.

The offset grayed portions below are quoted directly from that document:

2.1.2 Principles, Pillars & Capabilities
In alignment with common industry and academic Zero Trust principles, the following pillar and capability model has been developed (see Figure 4). A Pillar is a key focus area for implementation of Zero Trust controls. Capabilities are the ability to achieve a Desired Effect under specified (performance) standards and conditions through combinations of ways and means (activities and resources) to perform a set of activities. Pillars align with capabilities such as identity authentication and software defined enterprise. Sub-Capabilities such as enterprise identity provider or Just-In-Time analytics support capabilities. Capabilities and sub-capabilities as defined reflect the current technologies that are applicable in Zero Trust and are subject to change in future iterations of the Zero Trust Reference Architecture. This layered approach allows for flexibility in implementing Zero Trust controls. Overarching governance will be required to achieve proper integration across pillars and capabilities. The pillar and capabilities enable maximum visibility and protection of data, which are the key focuses of any implementation of Zero Trust.

The DoD CIO has aligned the principles of Zero Trust Networking across seven pillars that span the core capabilities of data operations in the DoD enterprise. Many of the capability areas blend, overlap, and reach across several logical, functional, and technical boundaries. Zero Trust Networking presents a wholly new paradigm to how access controls are applied to enterprise network resources and data systems.

Regardless of current or future toolsets implemented in the service of Zero Trust, a common data operating layer that can provide near real-time query and analytics of all relevant data streams is a foundational capability. What’s needed is a data platform that can be the “glue” between all systems and make them all more integrated, accurate, and trustable; it requires a system that can scale as needed in a cost-effective way, and yet remain flexible enough for changing mission needs in the future.  

The Elastic search platform provides a distributed data access layer that connects and operationalizes data from disparate systems and exponentially enhances operations on any kind of data. Elastic can be the foundational data platform that supports and truly enables each of the DoD CIO’s pillars of ZTN: 

User - Securing, limiting, and enforcing person, non-person, and federated entities’ access to DAAS encompasses the use of ICAM capabilities such as multi-factor authentication (MFA) and continuous multi-factor authentication (CMFA). Organizations need the ability to continuously authenticate, authorize, and monitor activity patterns to govern users’ access and privileges while protecting and securing all interactions. RBAC and ABAC will apply to policies within this pillar to authorize users towards access of applications and data. 

User - With Elastic as the common data access and analytics layer that connects all data streams from endpoints, through perimeters/boundaries, to applications, entity activities and behaviors are easily collected and monitored. Within Elastic’s unified data plane, events from the various ZTN tools can be validated and cross-correlated, which helps to ensure ZTN principles are continually applied and enables complex behavioral detections, automated alerts, and actions to be generated. Behavioral detections can be based on any activity that can be found using any of the Elastic search platform’s wide array of search modalities — including advanced geospatial, vector similarity (kNN/ANN), thresholds, machine learning (ML) anomaly detections, aggregated signals, and several others.

Device - Having the ability to identify, authenticate, authorize, inventory, isolate, secure, remediate, and control all devices is essential in a Zero Trust approach. Real-time attestation and patching of devices in an enterprise are critical functions. Some solutions such as Mobile Device Managers or Comply to Connect programs provide data that can be useful for device confidence assessments. Other assessments should be conducted for every access request (e.g. examinations of compromise state, anomaly detection, software versions, protection status, encryption enablement, etc.)

Device - Elastic provides a single endpoint Agent that allows not only collection of nearly any system or application data streams from the device, but also the protection of that device from malware, memory, ransomware attacks, and automatically detected behavioral abnormalities that are detected via ML algorithms. This signatureless approach lets devices remain protected even in disconnected or intermittent connectivity environments. Compromised endpoints can be isolated from the rest of the network, while still allowing it to be interrogated by the Elastic Security solution (SIEM). One of the many endpoint Agent integrations Elastic provides is OSQuery, which allows direct querying of nearly any device attribute in real-time as well as on a scheduled basis (this integration also works when the device is isolated). Whether the Elastic Agent is the endpoint collection/protection tool or not, all data streams collected across the enterprise can be used to verify ZTN processes are functioning properly and that compliance is being maintained, thus boosting confidence and reducing risk.

Network/Environment - Segment (both logically and physically), isolate, and control the network/environment (on-premises and off-premises) with granular access and policy restrictions. As the perimeter becomes more granular through macro-segmentation, microsegmentation provides greater protections and controls over DAAS. It is critical to (a) control privileged access, (b) manage internal and external data flows, and (c) prevent lateral movement. 

Network/Environment - Elastic can unify network traffic activities with user, perimeter, and application logs to validate network segmentation is properly applied and alert on potential violations. The Elastic platform is built to be API-first and easily integrated with other systems, so alerts can do more than notify admins — they can automate actions on other ZTN enforcement tools. Elastic can be the common data layer that enables ZTN and network point solutions to function in an orchestrated way, whether through direct API integrations, or ticketing systems, or SOAR applications.

Applications and Workload - Applications and workloads include tasks on systems or services on-premises, as well as applications or services running in a cloud environment. Zero Trust workloads span the complete application stack from application layer to hypervisor. Securing and properly managing the application layer as well as compute containers and virtual machines is central to Zero Trust adoption. Application delivery methods such as proxy technologies, enable additional protections to include Zero Trust decision and enforcement points. Developed Source Code and common libraries are vetted through DevSecOps development practices to secure applications from inception.

Applications and Workload - Elastic provides hundreds of data ingestion integrations that enable automatic collection and indexing of all layers of the operations stack — from the infrastructure, the compute resources, network operations, to the orchestration platforms, service mesh, VMs/containers, and operating systems, to the applications and transactions interacting with those services. Elastic brings it all together into an  actionable data speed layer that provides several solutions targeting monitoring, observability, and security use cases, while still also providing ultimate flexibility in how you choose to leverage your data for your mission.

Data - Zero Trust protects critical data, assets, applications and services. A clear understanding of an organization’s DAAS is critical for a successful implementation of a zero trust architecture. Organizations need to categorize their DAAS in terms of mission criticality and use this information to develop a comprehensive data management strategy as part of their overall Zero Trust approach. This can be achieved through the categorization of data, developing schemas, and encrypting data at rest and in transit. Solutions such as DRM, DLP, Software Defined Storage and granular data-tagging are relevant in protecting critical data. 

Data - Elastic can easily integrate with or augment data management solutions such as Data Catalogs, big data platforms, DRM, or DLP solutions, but it can also actually become the single unified data layer that all data operations (including data governance, records management, audit, and compliance) are performed at speed and scale. Elastic can be the common API-driven data service spanning all systems, the speed layer that also acts as a single source of truth.  

Visibility and Analytics - Vital, contextual details provide greater understanding of performance, behavior and activity baseline across other Zero Trust pillars. This visibility improves detection of anomalous behavior and provides the ability to make dynamic changes to security policy and real-time access decisions. Additionally, other monitoring systems, such as sensor data in addition to telemetry will be used, will help fill out the picture of what is happening with the environment and will aid in the triggering of alerts used for response. A Zero Trust enterprise will capture and inspect traffic, looking beyond network telemetry and into the packets themselves to accurately discover traffic on the network and observe threats that are present and orient defenses more intelligently

Visibility and Analytics - The Elastic search platform not only provides high speed and scale access to all organizational data streams, it also provides a wide array of visualization tools and dashboards. Many of the out-of-the-box data integrations include pre-built visualizations that let analysts understand and explore their data immediately upon ingestion, but these are all fully customizable and flexible enough to adapt to changing analytical needs. Dashboards allow for dynamic analysis of many different data streams at once, with the ability to overlay graphs with annotations, visualize geospatial data in context, or immediately filter or pivot to other dashboards or purpose-built solutions. 

Automation and Orchestration - Automate manual security processes to take policy-based actions across the enterprise with speed and at scale. SOAR improves security and decreases response times. Security orchestration integrates Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) and other automated security tools and assists in managing disparate security systems. Automated security response requires defined processes and consistent security policy enforcement across all environments in a Zero Trust enterprise to provide proactive command and control.

Automation and Orchestration - Simplicity is an underrated factor in the success of large-scale data integration efforts. Elastic provides the unique combination of high- speed and huge-scale data ingestion and management, with state-of-the-art data query, exploration, aggregation, and visualization methods, with an extremely powerful and flexible detection engine, and an alerting framework that can integrate with any other systems. This allows organizations to standardize on a single data platform that functions as a monitoring and investigative tool (for both operations and security/SIEM), and also automate the insights derived either directly to other enterprise tools or through other systems such as ticketing systems or SOARs.  

Conclusion

Elastic provides the scalable data platform to bring together all layers of the organization’s IT infrastructure and applications, and the speed to help make better business and Zero Trust Networking decisions.

To learn more about how Elastic helps the public sector meet their missions, visit our website.

Read this next: Elastic Security: Guide to high-volume data sources for SIEM

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