When you create an index through the Content UI, a set of default ingest pipelines are also created, including a ML inference pipeline. The ML inference pipeline uses inference processors to analyze fields and enrich documents with the output. Inference processors use ML trained models, so you need to use a built-in model or deploy a trained model in your cluster to use this feature.
This guide focuses on the ML inference pipeline, its use, and how to manage it.
NLP use casesedit
Natural Language Processing (NLP) allows developers to create rich search experiences that go beyond the standards of lexical search. A few examples of ways to improve search experiences through the use of NLP models:
ELSER text expansionedit
Using Elastic’s ELSER machine learning model you can easily incorporate text expansion for your queries. This works by using ELSER to provide semantic enrichments to your documents upon ingestion, combined with the power of Elastic Search Application templates to provide automated text expansion at query time.
Named entity recognition (NER)edit
Most commonly used to detect entities such as People, Places, and Organization information from text, NER can be used to extract key information from text and group results based on that information. A sports news media site could use NER to automatically extract names of professional athletes, stadiums, and sports teams in their articles and link to season stats or schedules.
Text classification is commonly used for sentiment analysis and can be used for similar tasks, such as labeling content as containing hate speech in public forums, or triaging and labeling support tickets so they reach the correct level of escalation automatically.
Analyzing a text field using a Text embedding model will generate a dense vector representation of the text. This array of numeric values encodes the semantic meaning of the text. Using the same model with a user’s search query will produce a vector that can then be used to search, ranking results based on vector similarity - semantic similarity - as opposed to traditional word or text similarity.
A common use case is a user searching FAQs, or a support agent searching a knowledge base, where semantically similar content may be indexed with little similarity in phrasing.
NLP in Content UIedit
Overview of ML inference pipelineedit
The diagram below shows how documents are processed during ingestion.
Documents are processed by the
my-index-0001pipeline, which happens automatically when indexing through a an Elastic connector or crawler.
_run_ml_inferencefield is set to
trueto ensure the ML inference pipeline (
my-index-0001@ml-inference) is executed. This field is removed during the ingestion process.
The inference processor analyzes the
messagefield on the document using the
my-positivity-model-idtrained model. The inference output is stored in the
The resulting enriched document is then indexed into the
ml.inference.positivity_predictionfield can now be used at query time to search for documents above or below a certain threshold.
Find, deploy, and manage trained modelsedit
This feature is intended to make it easier to use your ML trained models. First, you need to figure out which model works best for your data. Make sure to use a compatible third party NLP model. Since these are publicly available, it is not possible to fine-tune models before deploying them.
Trained models must be available in the current Kibana Space and running in order to use them. By default, models should be available in all Kibana Spaces that have the Analytics > Machine Learning feature enabled. To manage your trained models, use the Kibana UI and navigate to Stack Management → Machine Learning → Trained Models. Spaces can be controlled in the spaces column. To stop or start a model, go to the Machine Learning tab in the Analytics menu of Kibana and click Trained Models in the Model Management section.
monitor_ml Elasticsearch cluster privilege is required to manage ML models and ML inference pipelines which use those models.
Add inference processors to your ML inference pipelineedit
To create the index-specific ML inference pipeline, go to Search → Content → Indices → <your index> → Pipelines in the Kibana UI.
If you only see the
ent-search-generic-ingestion pipeline, you will need to click Copy and customize to create index-specific pipelines.
This will create the
Once your index-specific ML inference pipeline is ready, you can add inference processors that use your ML trained models. To add an inference processor to the ML inference pipeline, click the Add Inference Pipeline button in the Machine Learning Inference Pipelines card.
Here, you’ll be able to:
Choose a name for your pipeline.
- This name will need to be unique across the whole deployment. If you want this pipeline to be index-specific, we recommend including the name of your index in the pipeline name.
- Select the ML trained model you want to use.
Select one or more source fields as input for the inference processor.
- If there are no source fields available, your index will need a field mapping.
- (Optional) Choose a name for your target field. This is where the output of the inference model will be stored. Changing the default name is only possible if you have a single source field selected.
- Add the source-target field mapping to the configuration by clicking the Add button.
- Repeat steps 3-5 for each field mapping you want to add.
- (Optional) Test the pipeline with a sample document.
- (Optional) Review the pipeline definition before creating it with the Create pipeline button.
Manage and delete inference processors from your ML inference pipelineedit
Inference processors added to your index-specific ML inference pipelines are normal Elasticsearch pipelines. Once created, each processor will have options to View in Stack Management and Delete Pipeline. Deleting an inference processor from within the Content UI deletes the pipeline and also removes its reference from your index-specific ML inference pipeline.
These pipelines can also be viewed, edited, and deleted in Kibana via Stack Management → Ingest Pipelines, just like all other Elasticsearch ingest pipelines. You may also use the Ingest pipeline APIs. If you delete any of these pipelines outside of the Content UI in Kibana, make sure to edit the ML inference pipelines that reference them.
Update mappings to use ML inference pipelinesedit
After setting up an ML inference pipeline or attaching an existing one, it may be necessary to manually create the field mappings in order to support the referenced trained ML model’s output. This needs to happen before the pipeline is first used to index some documents, otherwise the model output fields could be inferred with the wrong type.
This doesn’t apply when you’re creating a pipeline with the ELSER model, for which the index mappings are automatically updated in the process.
The required field name and type depends on the configuration of the pipeline and the trained model it uses.
For example, if you configure a
text_embedding model, select
summary as a source field, and
ml.inference.summary as the target field, the inference output will be stored in
ml.inference.<source field name>.predicted_value as a dense_vector type.
In order to support semantic search on this field, it must be added to the mapping:
The output of the ML model is stored in the configured target field suffixed with
Choose a field type that is compatible with the inference output and supports your search use cases.
Set additional properties as necessary.
You can check the shape of the generated output before indexing any documents while creating the ML inference pipeline under the Test tab.
Simply provide a sample document, click Simulate, and look for the
ml.inference object in the results.
Test your ML inference pipelineedit
To ensure the ML inference pipeline will be run when ingesting documents, you must make sure the documents you are ingesting have a field named
_run_ml_inference that is set to
true and you must set the pipeline to
For connector and crawler indices, this will happen automatically if you’ve configured the settings appropriately for the pipeline name
To manage these settings:
- Go to Search > Content > Indices > <your index> > Pipelines.
Click on the Settings link in the Ingest Pipelines card for the
- Ensure ML inference pipelines is selected. If it is not, select it and save the changes.