You can manage and authenticate users with the built-in
file internal realm.
file realm users are defined in local files on each node in the cluster.
As the administrator of the cluster, it is your responsibility to ensure the same users are defined on every node in the cluster. X-Pack security does not deliver any mechanism to guarantee this.
file realm is primarily supported to serve as a fallback/recovery realm. It
is mostly useful in situations where all users locked themselves out of the system
(no one remembers their username/password). In this type of scenarios, the
realm is your only way out - you can define a new
admin user in the
and use it to log in and reset the credentials of all other users.
When you configure realms in
elasticsearch.yml, only the
realms you specify are used for authentication. To use the
file realm as a fallback, you must include it in the realm chain.
To define users, X-Pack security provides the users command-line tool. This tool enables you to add and remove users, assign user roles and manage user passwords.
file realm is added to the realm chain by default. You don’t need to
explicitly configure a
file realm to manage users with the
Like other realms, you can configure options for a
file realm in the
xpack.security.authc.realms namespace in
To configure an
Add a realm configuration of type
xpack.security.authc.realmsnamespace. At a minimum, you must set the realm
file. If you are configuring multiple realms, you should also explicitly set the
orderattribute. See File Realm Settings for all of the options you can set for a
For example, the following snippet shows a
filerealm configuration that sets the
orderto zero so the realm is checked first:
xpack: security: authc: realms: file1: type: file order: 0
- Restart Elasticsearch.
Indicates the realm type. Must be set to
Indicates the priority of this realm within the
realm chain. Realms with a lower order are
consulted first. Although not required, we
recommend explicitly setting this value when you
configure multiple realms. Defaults to
Indicates whether this realm is enabled or
disabled. Enables you to disable a realm without
removing its configuration. Defaults to
Specifies the time-to-live for cached user entries.
A user’s credentials are cached for this period of
time. Specify the time period using the standard
Elasticsearch time units.
Specifies the maximum number of user entries that can be stored in the cache at one time. Defaults to 100,000.
Specifies the hashing algorithm that is used for the cached user credentials. See Cache hash algorithms for the possible values. (Expert Setting).
users command-line tool is located in
ES_HOME/bin/x-pack and enables
several administrative tasks for managing users:
useradd sub-command to add a user to your local node.
To ensure that Elasticsearch can read the user and role information at
users useradd as the same user you use to run Elasticsearch.
Running the command as root or some other user will update the permissions
users_roles files and prevent Elasticsearch from
bin/x-pack/users useradd <username>
A username must be at least 1 character and no longer than 30 characters. The
first character must be a letter (
A-Z) or an underscore (
Subsequent characters can be letters, underscores (
_), digits (
0-9), or any
of the following symbols
You can specify the user’s password at the command-line with the
When this option is absent, the command prompts you for the password. Omit the
-p option to keep plaintext passwords out of the terminal session’s command
bin/x-pack/users useradd <username> -p <secret>
Passwords must be at least 6 characters long.
You can define a user’s roles with the
-r option. This option accepts a
comma-separated list of role names to assign to the user.
bin/x-pack/users useradd <username> -r <comma-separated list of role names>
The following example adds a new user named
jacknich to the
file realm. The
password for this user is
theshining, and this user is associated with the
bin/x-pack/users useradd jacknich -p theshining -r network,monitoring
For valid role names please see Role Definitions.
list sub-command to list the users registered with the
on the local node.
bin/x-pack/users list rdeniro : admin alpacino : power_user jacknich : monitoring,network
Users are in the left-hand column and their corresponding roles are listed in the right-hand column.
list <username> sub-command lists a specific user. Use this command to
verify that a user was successfully added to the local
bin/x-pack/users list jacknich jacknich : monitoring,network
passwd sub-command to reset a user’s password. You can specify the new
password directly with the
-p option. When
-p option is omitted, the tool
will prompt you to enter and confirm a password in interactive mode.
bin/x-pack/users passwd <username>
bin/x-pack/users passwd <username> -p <password>
roles sub-command to manage the roles of a particular user. The
option adds a comma-separated list of roles to a user. The
-r option removes
a comma-separated list of roles from a user. You can combine adding and removing
roles within the same command to change a user’s roles.
bin/x-pack/users roles <username> -a <commma-separate list of roles> -r <comma-separated list of roles>
The following command removes the
monitoring roles from user
jacknich and adds the
bin/x-pack/users roles jacknich -r network,monitoring -a user
Listing the user displays the new role assignment:
bin/x-pack/users list jacknich jacknich : user
All the data about the users for the
file realm is stored in two files,
users_roles. Both files are located in
CONFIG_DIR/x-pack/ and are read
By default, X-Pack security checks these files for changes every 5 seconds. You can
change this default behavior by changing the
resource.reload.interval.high setting in
elasticsearch.yml file (as this is a common setting in Elasticsearch,
changing its value may effect other schedules in the system).
These files are managed locally by the node and are not managed globally by the cluster. This means that with a typical multi-node cluster, the exact same changes need to be applied on each and every node in the cluster.
A safer approach would be to apply the change on one of the nodes and have the
users_roles files distributed/copied to all other nodes in the
cluster (either manually or using a configuration management system such as
Puppet or Chef).
While it is possible to modify these files directly using any standard text
editor, we strongly recommend using the
bin/x-pack/users command-line tool
to apply the required changes.
users file stores all the users and their passwords. Each line in the
users file represents a single user entry consisting of the username and
rdeniro:$2a$10$BBJ/ILiyJ1eBTYoRKxkqbuDEdYECplvxnqQ47uiowE7yGqvCEgj9W alpacino:$2a$10$cNwHnElYiMYZ/T3K4PvzGeJ1KbpXZp2PfoQD.gfaVdImnHOwIuBKS jacknich:$2a$10$GYUNWyABV/Ols/.bcwxuBuuaQzV6WIauW6RdboojxcixBq3LtI3ni
X-Pack security uses
bcrypt to hash the user passwords.
users_roles file stores the roles associated with the users, as in the
admin:rdeniro power_user:alpacino,jacknich user:jacknich
Each row maps a role to a comma-separated list of all the users that are associated with that role.