Date/Time and Interval Functions and Operatorsedit

Elasticsearch SQL offers a wide range of facilities for performing date/time manipulations.

Intervalsedit

A common requirement when dealing with date/time in general revolves around the notion of interval, a topic that is worth exploring in the context of Elasticsearch and Elasticsearch SQL.

Elasticsearch has comprehensive support for date math both inside index names and queries. Inside Elasticsearch SQL the former is supported as is by passing the expression in the table name, while the latter is supported through the standard SQL INTERVAL.

The table below shows the mapping between Elasticsearch and Elasticsearch SQL:

Elasticsearch

Elasticsearch SQL

Index/Table datetime math

<index-{now/M{YYYY.MM}}>

Query date/time math

1y

INTERVAL 1 YEAR

2M

INTERVAL 2 MONTH

3w

INTERVAL 21 DAY

4d

INTERVAL 4 DAY

5h

INTERVAL 5 HOUR

6m

INTERVAL 6 MINUTE

7s

INTERVAL 7 SECOND

INTERVAL allows either YEAR and MONTH to be mixed together or DAY, HOUR, MINUTE and SECOND.

Tip

Elasticsearch SQL accepts also the plural for each time unit (e.g. both YEAR and YEARS are valid).

Example of the possible combinations below:

Interval

Description

INTERVAL '1-2' YEAR TO MONTH

1 year and 2 months

INTERVAL '3 4' DAYS TO HOURS

3 days and 4 hours

INTERVAL '5 6:12' DAYS TO MINUTES

5 days, 6 hours and 12 minutes

INTERVAL '3 4:56:01' DAY TO SECOND

3 days, 4 hours, 56 minutes and 1 second

INTERVAL '2 3:45:01.23456789' DAY TO SECOND

2 days, 3 hours, 45 minutes, 1 second and 234567890 nanoseconds

INTERVAL '123:45' HOUR TO MINUTES

123 hours and 45 minutes

INTERVAL '65:43:21.0123' HOUR TO SECONDS

65 hours, 43 minutes, 21 seconds and 12300000 nanoseconds

INTERVAL '45:01.23' MINUTES TO SECONDS

45 minutes, 1 second and 230000000 nanoseconds

Operatorsedit

Basic arithmetic operators (+, -, etc) support date/time parameters as indicated below:

SELECT INTERVAL 1 DAY + INTERVAL 53 MINUTES AS result;

    result
---------------
+1 00:53:00.0
SELECT CAST('1969-05-13T12:34:56' AS DATETIME) + INTERVAL 49 YEARS AS result;

       result
--------------------
2018-05-13T12:34:56Z
SELECT - INTERVAL '49-1' YEAR TO MONTH result;

    result
---------------
-49-1
SELECT INTERVAL '1' DAY - INTERVAL '2' HOURS AS result;

    result
---------------
+0 22:00:00.0
SELECT CAST('2018-05-13T12:34:56' AS DATETIME) - INTERVAL '2-8' YEAR TO MONTH AS result;

       result
--------------------
2015-09-13T12:34:56Z
SELECT -2 * INTERVAL '3' YEARS AS result;

    result
---------------
-6-0

Functionsedit

Functions that target date/time.

CURRENT_DATE/CURDATEedit

Synopsis: 

CURRENT_DATE
CURRENT_DATE()
CURDATE()

Input: none

Output: date

Description: Returns the date (no time part) when the current query reached the server. It can be used both as a keyword: CURRENT_DATE or as a function with no arguments: CURRENT_DATE().

Note

Unlike CURRENT_DATE, CURDATE() can only be used as a function with no arguments and not as a keyword.

This method always returns the same value for its every occurrence within the same query.

SELECT CURRENT_DATE AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12
SELECT CURRENT_DATE() AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12
SELECT CURDATE() AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12

Typically, this function (as well as its twin TODAY()) function is used for relative date filtering:

SELECT first_name FROM emp WHERE hire_date > TODAY() - INTERVAL 35 YEARS ORDER BY first_name ASC LIMIT 5;

 first_name
------------
Alejandro
Amabile
Anneke
Anoosh
Arumugam

CURRENT_TIMESTAMPedit

Synopsis: 

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP([precision]) 

Input:

fractional digits; optional

Output: date/time

Description: Returns the date/time when the current query reached the server. As a function, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() accepts precision as an optional parameter for rounding the second fractional digits (nanoseconds). The default precision is 3, meaning a milliseconds precision current date/time will be returned.

This method always returns the same value for its every occurrence within the same query.

SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12T14:48:52.448Z
SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12T14:48:52.448Z
SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(1) AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12T14:48:52.4Z

Typically, this function (as well as its twin NOW()) function is used for relative date/time filtering:

SELECT first_name FROM emp WHERE hire_date > NOW() - INTERVAL 100 YEARS ORDER BY first_name ASC LIMIT 5;

  first_name
---------------
Alejandro
Amabile
Anneke
Anoosh
Arumugam
Important

Currently, using a precision greater than 3 doesn’t make any difference to the output of the function as the maximum number of second fractional digits returned is 3 (milliseconds).

DAY_OF_MONTH/DOM/DAYedit

Synopsis: 

DAY_OF_MONTH(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the day of the month from a date/datetime.

SELECT DAY_OF_MONTH(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS day;

      day
---------------
19

DAY_OF_WEEK/DAYOFWEEK/DOWedit

Synopsis: 

DAY_OF_WEEK(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the day of the week from a date/datetime. Sunday is 1, Monday is 2, etc.

SELECT DAY_OF_WEEK(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS day;

      day
---------------
2

DAY_OF_YEAR/DOYedit

Synopsis: 

DAY_OF_YEAR(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the day of the year from a date/datetime.

SELECT DAY_OF_YEAR(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS day;

      day
---------------
50

DAY_NAME/DAYNAMEedit

Synopsis: 

DAY_NAME(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: string

Description: Extract the day of the week from a date/datetime in text format (Monday, Tuesday…​).

SELECT DAY_NAME(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS day;

      day
---------------
Monday

HOUR_OF_DAY/HOURedit

Synopsis: 

HOUR_OF_DAY(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the hour of the day from a date/datetime.

SELECT HOUR_OF_DAY(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS hour;

     hour
---------------
10

ISO_DAY_OF_WEEK/ISODAYOFWEEK/ISODOW/IDOWedit

Synopsis: 

ISO_DAY_OF_WEEK(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the day of the week from a date/datetime, following the ISO 8601 standard. Monday is 1, Tuesday is 2, etc.

SELECT ISO_DAY_OF_WEEK(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS day;

      day
---------------
1

ISO_WEEK_OF_YEAR/ISOWEEKOFYEAR/ISOWEEK/IWOY/IWedit

Synopsis: 

ISO_WEEK_OF_YEAR(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the week of the year from a date/datetime, following ISO 8601 standard. The first week of a year is the first week with a majority (4 or more) of its days in January.

SELECT ISO_WEEK_OF_YEAR(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS week;

     week
---------------
8

MINUTE_OF_DAYedit

Synopsis: 

MINUTE_OF_DAY(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the minute of the day from a date/datetime.

SELECT MINUTE_OF_DAY(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS minute;

    minute
---------------
623

MINUTE_OF_HOUR/MINUTEedit

Synopsis: 

MINUTE_OF_HOUR(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the minute of the hour from a date/datetime.

SELECT MINUTE_OF_HOUR(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS minute;

    minute
---------------
23

MONTH_OF_YEAR/MONTHedit

Synopsis: 

MONTH(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the month of the year from a date/datetime.

SELECT MONTH_OF_YEAR(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS month;

     month
---------------
2

MONTH_NAME/MONTHNAMEedit

Synopsis: 

MONTH_NAME(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: string

Description: Extract the month from a date/datetime in text format (January, February…​).

SELECT MONTH_NAME(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS month;

     month
---------------
February

NOWedit

Synopsis: 

NOW()

Input: none

Output: datetime

Description: This function offers the same functionality as CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() function: returns the datetime when the current query reached the server. This method always returns the same value for its every occurrence within the same query.

SELECT NOW() AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12T14:48:52.448Z

Typically, this function (as well as its twin CURRENT_TIMESTAMP()) function is used for relative date/time filtering:

SELECT first_name FROM emp WHERE hire_date > NOW() - INTERVAL 100 YEARS ORDER BY first_name ASC LIMIT 5;

  first_name
---------------
Alejandro
Amabile
Anneke
Anoosh
Arumugam

SECOND_OF_MINUTE/SECONDedit

Synopsis: 

SECOND_OF_MINUTE(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the second of the minute from a date/datetime.

SELECT SECOND_OF_MINUTE(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS second;

    second
---------------
27

QUARTERedit

Synopsis: 

QUARTER(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the year quarter the date/datetime falls in.

SELECT QUARTER(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS quarter;

    quarter
---------------
1

TODAYedit

Synopsis: 

TODAY()

Input: none

Output: date

Description: This function offers the same functionality as CURRENT_DATE() function: returns the date when the current query reached the server. This method always returns the same value for its every occurrence within the same query.

SELECT TODAY() AS result;

         result
------------------------
2018-12-12

Typically, this function (as well as its twin CURRENT_TIMESTAMP()) function is used for relative date filtering:

SELECT first_name FROM emp WHERE hire_date > TODAY() - INTERVAL 35 YEARS ORDER BY first_name ASC LIMIT 5;

 first_name
------------
Alejandro
Amabile
Anneke
Anoosh
Arumugam

WEEK_OF_YEAR/WEEKedit

Synopsis: 

WEEK_OF_YEAR(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the week of the year from a date/datetime.

SELECT WEEK(CAST('1988-01-05T09:22:10Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS week, ISOWEEK(CAST('1988-01-05T09:22:10Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS isoweek;

      week     |   isoweek
---------------+---------------
2              |1

YEARedit

Synopsis: 

YEAR(datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract the year from a date/datetime.

SELECT YEAR(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS year;

     year
---------------
2018

EXTRACTedit

Synopsis: 

EXTRACT(
    datetime_function  
    FROM datetime_exp) 

Input:

date/time function name

date/datetime expression

Output: integer

Description: Extract fields from a date/datetime by specifying the name of a datetime function. The following

SELECT EXTRACT(DAY_OF_YEAR FROM CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS day;

      day
---------------
50

is the equivalent to

SELECT DAY_OF_YEAR(CAST('2018-02-19T10:23:27Z' AS TIMESTAMP)) AS day;

      day
---------------
50