Cron expressions

A cron expression is a string of the following form:

    <seconds> <minutes> <hours> <day_of_month> <month> <day_of_week> [year]

Elasticsearch uses the cron parser from the Quartz Job Scheduler. For more information about writing Quartz cron expressions, see the Quartz CronTrigger Tutorial.

All schedule times are in coordinated universal time (UTC); other timezones are not supported.

You can use the elasticsearch-croneval command line tool to validate your cron expressions.

Cron expression elements

All elements are required except for year. See Cron special characters for information about the allowed special characters.

<seconds>
(Required) Valid values: 0-59 and the special characters , - * /
<minutes>
(Required) Valid values: 0-59 and the special characters , - * /
<hours>
(Required) Valid values: 0-23 and the special characters , - * /
<day_of_month>
(Required) Valid values: 1-31 and the special characters , - * / ? L W
<month>
(Required) Valid values: 1-12, JAN-DEC, jan-dec, and the special characters , - * /
<day_of_week>
(Required) Valid values: 1-7, SUN-SAT, sun-sat, and the special characters , - * / ? L #
<year>
(Optional) Valid values: 1970-2099 and the special characters , - * /

Cron special characters

*
Selects every possible value for a field. For example, * in the hours field means "every hour".
?
No specific value. Use when you don’t care what the value is. For example, if you want the schedule to trigger on a particular day of the month, but don’t care what day of the week that happens to be, you can specify ? in the day_of_week field.
-
A range of values (inclusive). Use to separate a minimum and maximum value. For example, if you want the schedule to trigger every hour between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., you could specify 9-17 in the hours field.
,
Multiple values. Use to separate multiple values for a field. For example, if you want the schedule to trigger every Tuesday and Thursday, you could specify TUE,THU in the day_of_week field.
/
Increment. Use to separate values when specifying a time increment. The first value represents the starting point, and the second value represents the interval. For example, if you want the schedule to trigger every 20 minutes starting at the top of the hour, you could specify 0/20 in the minutes field. Similarly, specifying 1/5 in day_of_month field will trigger every 5 days starting on the first day of the month.
L
Last. Use in the day_of_month field to mean the last day of the month—​day 31 for January, day 28 for February in non-leap years, day 30 for April, and so on. Use alone in the day_of_week field in place of 7 or SAT, or after a particular day of the week to select the last day of that type in the month. For example 6L means the last Friday of the month. You can specify LW in the day_of_month field to specify the last weekday of the month. Avoid using the L option when specifying lists or ranges of values, as the results likely won’t be what you expect.
W
Weekday. Use to specify the weekday (Monday-Friday) nearest the given day. As an example, if you specify 15W in the day_of_month field and the 15th is a Saturday, the schedule will trigger on the 14th. If the 15th is a Sunday, the schedule will trigger on Monday the 16th. If the 15th is a Tuesday, the schedule will trigger on Tuesday the 15th. However if you specify 1W as the value for day_of_month, and the 1st is a Saturday, the schedule will trigger on Monday the 3rd—​it won’t jump over the month boundary. You can specify LW in the day_of_month field to specify the last weekday of the month. You can only use the W option when the day_of_month is a single day—​it is not valid when specifying a range or list of days.
#
Nth XXX day in a month. Use in the day_of_week field to specify the nth XXX day of the month. For example, if you specify 6#1, the schedule will trigger on the first Friday of the month. Note that if you specify 3#5 and there are not 5 Tuesdays in a particular month, the schedule won’t trigger that month.

Examples

Setting daily triggers

0 5 9 * * ?
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC every day.
0 5 9 * * ? 2020
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC every day during the year 2020.

Restricting triggers to a range of days or times

0 5 9 ? * MON-FRI
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC Monday through Friday.
0 0-5 9 * * ?
Trigger every minute starting at 9:00 a.m. UTC and ending at 9:05 a.m. UTC every day.

Setting interval triggers

0 0/15 9 * * ?
Trigger every 15 minutes starting at 9:00 a.m. UTC and ending at 9:45 a.m. UTC every day.
0 5 9 1/3 * ?
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC every 3 days every month, starting on the first day of the month.

Setting schedules that trigger on a particular day

0 1 4 1 4 ?
Trigger every April 1st at 4:01 a.m. UTC.
0 0,30 9 ? 4 WED
Trigger at 9:00 a.m. UTC and at 9:30 a.m. UTC every Wednesday in the month of April.
0 5 9 15 * ?
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC on the 15th day of every month.
0 5 9 15W * ?
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC on the nearest weekday to the 15th of every month.
0 5 9 ? * 6#1
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC on the first Friday of every month.

Setting triggers using last

0 5 9 L * ?
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC on the last day of every month.
0 5 9 ? * 2L
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC on the last Monday of every month.
0 5 9 LW * ?
Trigger at 9:05 a.m. UTC on the last weekday of every month.