Audit event typesedit

When you are auditing security events, each request can generate multiple audit events.

The following is a list of the events that can be generated:

anonymous_access_denied

Logged when a request is denied due to a missing authentication token.

authentication_success

Logged when a user successfully authenticates.

authentication_failed

Logged when the authentication token cannot be matched to a known user.

realm_authentication_failed

Logged for every realm that fails to present a valid authentication token. <realm> represents the realm type.

access_denied

Logged when an authenticated user attempts to execute an action they do not have the necessary privilege to perform.

access_granted

Logged when an authenticated user attempts to execute an action they have the necessary privilege to perform. When the system_access_granted event is included, all system (internal) actions are also logged. The default setting does not log system actions to avoid cluttering the logs.

run_as_granted

Logged when an authenticated user attempts to run as another user that they have the necessary privileges to do.

run_as_denied

Logged when an authenticated user attempts to run as another user action they do not have the necessary privilege to do so.

tampered_request

Logged when X-Pack security detects that the request has been tampered with. Typically relates to search/scroll requests when the scroll ID is believed to have been tampered with.

connection_granted

Logged when an incoming TCP connection passes the IP Filter for a specific profile.

connection_denied

Logged when an incoming TCP connection does not pass the IP Filter for a specific profile.

Audit event attributesedit

In 6.5.0, there is a new logfile audit output format. This format also brings in a few changes for audit event attributes.

The new format is output to the <clustername>_audit.log file. The audit entries are formatted as flat JSON documents (that is to say, no nested objects), one per line. Hence, the attribute names are JSON keys and they follow a dotted name syntax. Any attributes that lack a value (null) are not output.

The following list shows attributes that are common to all audit events. Their names and values are analogous to those in the deprecated logfile or index output formats. However, it is expected that the formats will evolve independently during the 6.x releases, so it is advisable to follow the attribute descriptions for the format that you are using.

@timestamp
The time, in ISO9601 format, when the event occurred.
node.name
The name of the node. This can be changed in the elasticsearch.yml config file.
node.id
The node id. This is automatically generated and is persistent across full cluster restarts.
host.ip
The bound IP address of the node, with which the node can be communicated with.
host.name
The unresolved node’s hostname.
origin.address
The source IP address of the request associated with this event. This could be the address of the remote client, the address of another cluster node, or the local node’s bound address, if the request originated locally. Unless the remote client connects directly to the cluster, the client address will actually be the address of the first OSI layer 3 proxy in front of the cluster.
origin.type
The origin type of the request associated with this event: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).
event.type
The internal processing layer that generated the event: rest, transport or ip_filter. This is different from origin.type because a request originating from the REST API is translated to a number of transport messages, generating audit events with origin.type: rest and event.type: transport.
event.action
The type of event that occurred: anonymous_access_denied, authentication_failed, authentication_success, realm_authentication_failed, access_denied, access_granted, connection_denied, connection_granted, tampered_request, run_as_denied, or run_as_granted.
opaque_id
The value of the X-Opaque-Id HTTP header (if present) of the request associated with this event. This header can be used freely by the client to mark API calls, as it has no semantics in Elasticsearch.

Audit event attributes of the REST event typeedit

The events with event.type equal to rest have one of the following event.action attribute values: authentication_success, anonymous_access_denied, authentication_failed, realm_authentication_failed, tampered_request or run_as_denied. These event types also have the following extra attributes (in addition to the common ones):

url.path
The path part of the URL (between the port and the query string) of the REST request associated with this event. This is URL encoded.
url.query
The query part of the URL (after "?", if present) of the REST request associated with this event. This is URL encoded.
request.body
The full content of the REST request associated with this event, if enabled. This contains the query body. The body is escaped according to the JSON RFC 4627.

Audit event attributes of the transport event typeedit

The events with event.type equal to transport have one of the following event.action attribute values: authentication_success, anonymous_access_denied, authentication_failed, realm_authentication_failed, access_granted, access_denied, run_as_granted, run_as_denied, or tampered_request. These event types also have the following extra attributes (in addition to the common ones):

action
The name of the transport action that was executed. This is like the URL for a REST request.
indices
The indices names array that the request associated with this event pertains to (when applicable).
request.name
The name of the request handler that was executed.

Audit event attributes of the ip_filter event typeedit

The events with event.type equal to ip_filter have one of the following event.action attribute values: connection_granted or connection_denied. These event types also have the following extra attributes (in addition to the common ones):

transport_profile
The transport profile the request targeted.
rule
The IP filtering rule that denied the request.

Extra audit event attributes for specific eventsedit

There are a few events that have some more attributes in addition to those that have been previously described:

  • authentication_success:

    realm
    The name of the realm that successfully authenticated the user.
    user.name
    The name of the effective user. This is usually the same as the authenticated user, but if using the run as authorization functionality this instead denotes the name of the impersonated user.
    user.run_by.name
    This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality and denotes the name of the authenticated user, which is also known as the impersonator.
  • authentication_failed:

    user.name
    The name of the user that failed authentication. If the request authentication token is invalid or unparsable, this information might be missing.
  • realm_authentication_failed:

    user.name
    The name of the user that failed authentication.
    realm
    The name of the realm that rejected this authentication. This event is generated for each consulted realm in the chain.
  • run_as_denied and run_as_granted:

    user.roles
    The role names of the user as an array.
    user.name
    The name of the authenticated user which is being granted or denied the impersonation action.
    user.realm
    The realm name that the authenticated user belongs to.
    user.run_as.name
    The name of the user as which the impersonation action is granted or denied.
    user.run_as.realm
    The realm name of that the impersonated user belongs to.
  • access_granted or access_denied:

    user.roles
    The role names of the user as an array.
    user.name
    The name of the effective user that is being authorized or unauthorized. This is usually the authenticated user, but if using the run as authorization functionality this instead denotes the name of the impersonated user.
    user.realm
    The realm name that the effective user belongs to.
    user.run_by.name
    This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality and denoted the name of the authenticated user, which is also known as the impersonator.
    user.run_by.realm
    This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality and denotes the name of the realm that the authenticated (impersonator) user belongs to.

Audit event attributes for the deprecated formatsedit

The following table shows the common attributes that can be associated with every event, when it is output to the <clustername>_access.log file or to the index.

Table 1. Common attributes

Attribute Description

@timestamp

When the event occurred.

node_name

The name of the node.

node_host_name

The hostname of the node.

node_host_address

The IP address of the node.

layer

The layer from which this event originated: rest, transport or ip_filter

event_type

The type of event that occurred: anonymous_access_denied, authentication_failed, authentication_success, realm_authentication_failed, access_denied, access_granted, connection_denied, connection_granted, tampered_request, run_as_denied, run_as_granted.


For an event in the audit log file output, these are positional attributes, which are printed at the beginning of each log line and are not adjoined by the attribute name. As a matter of course, the names are present for each attribute when the event is forwarded to the index audit output.

The attribute origin_address is also common to every audit event. It is always named, that is, it is not positional. It denotes the source IP address of the request associated with this event. This might be the address of the client, the address of another cluster node, or the local node’s bound address (if the request originated locally). Unless the client connects directly to the cluster, the client address is the address of the first OSI layer 3 proxy in front of the cluster.

In addition, every event might have the opaque_id attribute, with the value as it has been passed in by the X-Opaque-Id HTTP request header. This header can be used freely by the client to mark API calls, as it has no semantics in Elasticsearch. Every audit event, generated as part of handling a request thus marked, contains the opaque_id attribute.

The following tables show the attributes that can are associated with each type of event, in addition to the common ones previously described:

Table 2. REST anonymous_access_denied attributes

Attribute Description

uri

The REST endpoint URI.

request_body

The body of the request, if enabled.


Table 3. REST authentication_success attributes

Attribute Description

principal

The effective (impersonated) username. Usually this is the same as the authenticated username.

run_by_principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username. This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality. Otherwise, the effective user is the same as the authenticated one, which is indicated by the principal attribute.

realm

The realm that authenticated the user.

uri

The REST endpoint URI.

params

The REST URI query parameters.

request_body

The body of the request, if enabled.


Table 4. REST authentication_failed attributes

Attribute Description

principal

The principal (username) that failed authentication. If the request’s authentication token is invalid, this information might be missing.

uri

The REST endpoint URI.

request_body

The body of the request, if enabled.


Table 5. REST realm_authentication_failed attributes

Attribute Description

realm

The realm that failed to authenticate the user. A separate entry is logged for each consulted realm.

principal

The principal (username) that failed authentication.

uri

The REST endpoint URI.

request_body

The body of the request, if enabled.


Table 6. REST tampered_request attributes

Attribute Description

uri

The REST endpoint URI.

request_body

The body of the request, if enabled.


Table 7. Transport anonymous_access_denied attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request pertains to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 8. Transport authentication_success attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The effective (impersonated) username. Usually this is the same as the authenticated username.

run_by_principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username. This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality. Otherwise, the effective and the authenticated users are equivalent and are indicated by the principal attribute.

realm

The realm that authenticated the user.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request pertains to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 9. Transport authentication_failed attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The effective (impersonated) username. Usually this is the same as the authenticated username. If the request’s authentication token is invalid, this information might be missing.

run_by_principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username. This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality. Otherwise, the effective and the authenticated users are equivalent and are indicated by the principal attribute.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request pertains to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 10. Transport realm_authentication_failed attributes

Attribute Description

realm

The realm that failed to authenticate the user. A separate entry is logged for each consulted realm.

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The principal (username) that failed authentication.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request pertains to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 11. Transport access_granted attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The effective (impersonated) username for which authorization succeeded. Unless the request is using the run as authorization functionality, the effective and authenticated usernames are equivalent.

realm

The realm name that principal belongs to.

run_by_principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username. This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality. Otherwise, the effective and the authenticated usernames are equivalent and are indicated by the principal attribute.

run_by_realm

The realm name that run_by_principal belongs to (when applicable).

roles

The set of roles granting permissions.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request pertains to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 12. Transport access_denied attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The effective (impersonated) username for which authorization failed. Unless the request is using the run as authorization functionality, the effective and the authenticated usernames are equivalent.

realm

The realm name that principal belongs to.

run_by_principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username. This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality. Otherwise, the effective and the authenticated usernames are equivalent and are indicated by the principal attribute.

run_by_realm

The realm name that run_by_principal belongs to (when applicable).

roles

The set of roles granting permissions.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request relates to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 13. Transport run_as_granted attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username for which the impersonation operation was granted.

realm

The realm name that the authenticated user belongs to.

run_as_principal

The impersonated username.

run_as_realm

The realm name that the impersonated username belongs to.

roles

The set of roles granting permissions.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request relates to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 14. Transport run_as_denied attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username for which the impersonation operation was denied.

realm

The realm name that the authenticated user belongs to.

run_as_principal

The impersonated username.

run_as_realm

The realm name that the impersonated username belongs to.

roles

The set of roles granting permissions.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request relates to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 15. Transport tampered_request attributes

Attribute Description

origin_type

Where the request originated: rest (request originated from a REST API request), transport (request was received on the transport channel), or local_node (the local node issued the request).

principal

The effective (impersonated) username. Unless the request is using the run as authorization functionality, the effective and the authenticated usernames are equivalent. If the requests’s authentication token is invalid, this information might be missing.

run_by_principal

The authenticated (impersonator) username. This attribute is present only if the request is using the run as authorization functionality. Otherwise, the effective and the authenticated usernames are equivalent and are indicated by the principal attribute.

action

The name of the action that was executed.

indices

A comma-separated list of indices this request pertains to (when applicable).

request

The type of request that was executed.


Table 16. IP filter connection_granted attributes

Attribute Description

transport_profile

The transport profile the request targeted.

rule

The IP filtering rule that granted the request.


Table 17. IP filter connection_denied attributes

Attribute Description

transport_profile

The transport profile the request targeted.

rule

The IP filtering rule that denied the request.