Tokenizersedit

A tokenizer receives a stream of characters, breaks it up into individual tokens (usually individual words), and outputs a stream of tokens. For instance, a whitespace tokenizer breaks text into tokens whenever it sees any whitespace. It would convert the text "Quick brown fox!" into the terms [Quick, brown, fox!].

The tokenizer is also responsible for recording the order or position of each term (used for phrase and word proximity queries) and the start and end character offsets of the original word which the term represents (used for highlighting search snippets).

Elasticsearch has a number of built in tokenizers which can be used to build custom analyzers.

Word Oriented Tokenizersedit

The following tokenizers are usually used for tokenizing full text into individual words:

Standard Tokenizer
The standard tokenizer divides text into terms on word boundaries, as defined by the Unicode Text Segmentation algorithm. It removes most punctuation symbols. It is the best choice for most languages.
Letter Tokenizer
The letter tokenizer divides text into terms whenever it encounters a character which is not a letter.
Lowercase Tokenizer
The lowercase tokenizer, like the letter tokenizer, divides text into terms whenever it encounters a character which is not a letter, but it also lowercases all terms.
Whitespace Tokenizer
The whitespace tokenizer divides text into terms whenever it encounters any whitespace character.
UAX URL Email Tokenizer
The uax_url_email tokenizer is like the standard tokenizer except that it recognises URLs and email addresses as single tokens.
Classic Tokenizer
The classic tokenizer is a grammar based tokenizer for the English Language.
Thai Tokenizer
The thai tokenizer segments Thai text into words.

Partial Word Tokenizersedit

These tokenizers break up text or words into small fragments, for partial word matching:

N-Gram Tokenizer
The ngram tokenizer can break up text into words when it encounters any of a list of specified characters (e.g. whitespace or punctuation), then it returns n-grams of each word: a sliding window of continuous letters, e.g. quick[qu, ui, ic, ck].
Edge N-Gram Tokenizer
The edge_ngram tokenizer can break up text into words when it encounters any of a list of specified characters (e.g. whitespace or punctuation), then it returns n-grams of each word which are anchored to the start of the word, e.g. quick[q, qu, qui, quic, quick].

Structured Text Tokenizersedit

The following tokenizers are usually used with structured text like identifiers, email addresses, zip codes, and paths, rather than with full text:

Keyword Tokenizer
The keyword tokenizer is a noop tokenizer that accepts whatever text it is given and outputs the exact same text as a single term. It can be combined with token filters like lowercase to normalise the analysed terms.
Pattern Tokenizer
The pattern tokenizer uses a regular expression to either split text into terms whenever it matches a word separator, or to capture matching text as terms.
Path Tokenizer
The path_hierarchy tokenizer takes a hierarchical value like a filesystem path, splits on the path separator, and emits a term for each component in the tree, e.g. /foo/bar/baz[/foo, /foo/bar, /foo/bar/baz ].