Dynamic Mapping

One of the most important features of Elasticsearch is that it tries to get out of your way and let you start exploring your data as quickly as possible. To index a document, you don’t have to first create an index, define a mapping type, and define your fields — you can just index a document and the index, type, and fields will spring to life automatically:

PUT data/counters/1 
{ "count": 5 }

Creates the data index, the counters mapping type, and a field called count with datatype long.

The automatic detection and addition of new types and fields is called dynamic mapping. The dynamic mapping rules can be customised to suit your purposes with:

_default_ mapping
Configure the base mapping to be used for new mapping types.
Dynamic field mappings
The rules governing dynamic field detection.
Dynamic templates
Custom rules to configure the mapping for dynamically added fields.

Index templates allow you to configure the default mappings, settings, aliases, and warmers for new indices, whether created automatically or explicitly.

Disabling automatic type creation

Automatic type creation can be disabled by setting the index.mapper.dynamic setting to false in the index settings:

PUT /_settings 
{
  "index.mapper.dynamic":false
}

Disable automatic type creation for all indices.

Regardless of the value of this setting, types can still be added explicitly when creating an index or with the PUT mapping API.