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The default behavior of Elasticsearch is to load in-memory fielddata lazily. The first time Elasticsearch encounters a query that needs fielddata for a particular field, it will load that entire field into memory for each segment in the index.
For small segments, this requires a negligible amount of time. But if you have a few 5 GB segments and need to load 10 GB of fielddata into memory, this process could take tens of seconds. Users accustomed to subsecond response times would all of a sudden be hit by an apparently unresponsive website.
There are three methods to combat this latency spike:
- Eagerly load fielddata
- Eagerly load global ordinals
- Prepopulate caches with warmers
All are variations on the same concept: preload the fielddata so that there is no latency spike when the user needs to execute a search.
The first tool is called eager loading (as opposed to the default lazy loading). As new segments are created (by refreshing, flushing, or merging), fields with eager loading enabled will have their per-segment fielddata preloaded before the segment becomes visible to search.
This means that the first query to hit the segment will not need to trigger fielddata loading, as the in-memory cache has already been populated. This prevents your users from experiencing the cold cache latency spike.
Eager loading is enabled on a per-field basis, so you can control which fields are pre-loaded:
Fielddata loading can be set to
eager on existing fields, using
Eager loading simply shifts the cost of loading fielddata. Instead of paying at query time, you pay at refresh time.
Large segments will take longer to refresh than small segments. Usually, large segments are created by merging smaller segments that are already visible to search, so the slower refresh time is not important.
One of the techniques used to reduce the memory usage of string fielddata is called ordinals.
Imagine that we have a billion documents, each of which has a
There are only three statuses:
status_deleted. If we were to hold the full string status in memory for
every document, we would use 14 to 16 bytes per document, or about 15 GB.
Instead, we can identify the three unique strings, sort them, and number them: 0, 1, 2.
Ordinal | Term ------------------- 0 | status_deleted 1 | status_pending 2 | status_published
The original strings are stored only once in the ordinals list, and each document just uses the numbered ordinal to point to the value that it contains.
Doc | Ordinal ------------------------- 0 | 1 # pending 1 | 1 # pending 2 | 2 # published 3 | 0 # deleted
This reduces memory usage from 15 GB to less than 1 GB!
But there is a problem. Remember that fielddata caches are per segment. If
one segment contains only two statuses—
status_published—then the resulting ordinals (0 and 1) will not be the
same as the ordinals for a segment that contains all three statuses.
If we try to run a
terms aggregation on the
status field, we need to
aggregate on the actual string values, which means that we need to identify
the same values across all segments. A naive way of doing this would be to
run the aggregation on each segment, return the string values from each
segment, and then reduce them into an overall result. While this would work,
it would be slow and CPU intensive.
Instead, we use a structure called global ordinals. Global ordinals are a small in-memory data structure built on top of fielddata. Unique values are identified across all segments and stored in an ordinals list like the one we have already described.
terms aggregation can just aggregate on the global ordinals, and
the conversion from ordinal to actual string value happens only once at the
end of the aggregation. This increases performance of aggregations (and
sorting) by a factor of three or four.
Of course, nothing in life is free. Global ordinals cross all segments in an index, so if a new segment is added or an old segment is deleted, the global ordinals need to be rebuilt. Rebuilding requires reading every unique term in every segment. The higher the cardinality—the more unique terms that exist—the longer this process takes.
Global ordinals are built on top of in-memory fielddata and doc values. In fact, they are one of the major reasons that doc values perform as well as they do.
Like fielddata loading, global ordinals are built lazily, by default. The first request that requires fielddata to hit an index will trigger the building of global ordinals. Depending on the cardinality of the field, this can result in a significant latency spike for your users. Once global ordinals have been rebuilt, they will be reused until the segments in the index change: after a refresh, a flush, or a merge.
Individual string fields can be configured to prebuild global ordinals eagerly:
Just like the eager preloading of fielddata, eager global ordinals are built before a new segment becomes visible to search.
Ordinals are only built and used for strings. Numerical data (integers, geopoints, dates, etc) doesn’t need an ordinal mapping, since the value itself acts as an intrinsic ordinal mapping.
Therefore, you can only enable eager global ordinals for string fields.
Doc values can also have their global ordinals built eagerly:
In this case, fielddata is not loaded into memory, but doc values are loaded into the filesystem cache.
Unlike fielddata preloading, eager building of global ordinals can have an impact on the real-time aspect of your data. For very high cardinality fields, building global ordinals can delay a refresh by several seconds. The choice is between paying the cost on each refresh, or on the first query after a refresh. If you index often and query seldom, it is probably better to pay the price at query time instead of on every refresh.
Make your global ordinals pay for themselves. If you have very high
cardinality fields that take seconds to rebuild, increase the
refresh_interval so that global ordinals remain valid for longer. This will
also reduce CPU usage, as you will need to rebuild global ordinals less often.
Deprecated in 2.3.0.
Thanks to disk-based norms and doc values, warmers don’t have use-cases anymore.
Finally, we come to index warmers. Warmers predate eager fielddata loading and eager global ordinals, but they still serve a purpose. An index warmer allows you to specify a query and aggregations that should be run before a new segment is made visible to search. The idea is to prepopulate, or warm, caches so your users never see a spike in latency.
Originally, the most important use for warmers was to make sure that fielddata was pre-loaded, as this is usually the most costly step. This is now better controlled with the techniques we discussed previously. However, warmers can be used to prebuild filter caches, and can still be used to preload fielddata should you so choose.
Let’s register a warmer and then talk about what’s happening:
Warmers are associated with an index (
The three most popular music genres are pre-warmed to help encourage caching.
The fielddata and global ordinals for the
Warmers are registered against a specific index. Each warmer is given a unique ID, because you can have multiple warmers per index.
Then you just specify a query, any query. It can include queries, filters, aggregations, sort values, scripts—literally any valid query DSL. The point is to register queries that are representative of the traffic that your users will generate, so that appropriate caches can be prepopulated.
When a new segment is created, Elasticsearch will literally execute the queries registered in your warmers. The act of executing these queries will force caches to be loaded. Only after all warmers have been executed will the segment be made visible to search.
Similar to eager loading, warmers shift the cost of cold caches to refresh time. When registering warmers, it is important to be judicious. You could add thousands of warmers to make sure every cache is populated—but that will drastically increase the time it takes for new segments to be made searchable.
In practice, select a handful of queries that represent the majority of your user’s queries and register those.
Some administrative details (such as getting existing warmers and deleting warmers) that have been omitted from this explanation. Refer to the warmers documentation for the rest of the details.