At the beginning of this chapter, we said that Elasticsearch can scale out to hundreds (or even thousands) of servers and handle petabytes of data. While our tutorial gave examples of how to use Elasticsearch, it didn’t touch on the mechanics at all. Elasticsearch is distributed by nature, and it is designed to hide the complexity that comes with being distributed.
The distributed aspect of Elasticsearch is largely transparent. Nothing in the tutorial required you to know about distributed systems, sharding, cluster discovery, or dozens of other distributed concepts. It happily ran the tutorial on a single node living inside your laptop, but if you were to run the tutorial on a cluster containing 100 nodes, everything would work in exactly the same way.
Elasticsearch tries hard to hide the complexity of distributed systems. Here are some of the operations happening automatically under the hood:
- Partitioning your documents into different containers or shards, which can be stored on a single node or on multiple nodes
- Balancing these shards across the nodes in your cluster to spread the indexing and search load
- Duplicating each shard to provide redundant copies of your data, to prevent data loss in case of hardware failure
- Routing requests from any node in the cluster to the nodes that hold the data you’re interested in
- Seamlessly integrating new nodes as your cluster grows or redistributing shards to recover from node loss
As you read through this book, you’ll encounter supplemental chapters about the distributed nature of Elasticsearch. These chapters will teach you about how the cluster scales and deals with failover (Life Inside a Cluster), handles document storage (Distributed Document Store), executes distributed search (Distributed Search Execution), and what a shard is and how it works (Inside a Shard).
These chapters are not required reading—you can use Elasticsearch without understanding these internals—but they will provide insight that will make your knowledge of Elasticsearch more complete. Feel free to skim them and revisit at a later point when you need a more complete understanding.