Date math expressionsedit

The date type supports using date math expression when using it in a query/filter Whenever durations need to be specified, eg for a timeout parameter, the duration can be specified

The expression starts with an "anchor" date, which can be either now or a date string (in the applicable format) ending with ||. It can be followed by a math expression, supporting +, - and / (rounding). The units supported are

  • y (year)
  • M (month)
  • w (week)
  • d (day)
  • h (hour)
  • m (minute)
  • s (second)

Be sure to read the Elasticsearch documentation on Date Math.

Simple expressionsedit

You can create simple expressions using any of the static methods on DateMath

Expect("now").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now);
Expect("2015-05-05T00:00:00").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Anchored(new DateTime(2015,05, 05)));

strings implicitly convert to DateMath

Expect("now").WhenSerializing<Nest.DateMath>("now");

but are lenient to bad math expressions

var nonsense = "now||*asdaqwe";

the resulting date math will assume the whole string is the anchor

Expect(nonsense)
     .WhenSerializing<Nest.DateMath>(nonsense)
    .AssertSubject(dateMath => ((IDateMath)dateMath)
        .Anchor.Match(
            d => d.Should().NotBe(default(DateTime)),
            s => s.Should().Be(nonsense)
        )
    );

DateTime also implicitly convert to simple date math expressions; the resulting anchor will be an actual DateTime, even after a serialization/deserialization round trip

var date = new DateTime(2015, 05, 05);
Expect("2015-05-05T00:00:00")
    .WhenSerializing<Nest.DateMath>(date)
    .AssertSubject(dateMath => ((IDateMath)dateMath)
        .Anchor.Match(
            d => d.Should().Be(date),
            s => s.Should().BeNull()
        )
    );

Complex expressionsedit

Ranges can be chained on to simple expressions

Expect("now+1d").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("1d"));

Including multiple operations

Expect("now+1d-1m").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("1d").Subtract(TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1)));

A rounding value can be chained to the end of the expression, after which no more ranges can be appended

Expect("now+1d-1m/d").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("1d")
        .Subtract(TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1))
        .RoundTo(DateMathTimeUnit.Day));

When anchoring dates, a || needs to be appended as clear separator between the anchor and ranges. Again, multiple ranges can be chained

Expect("2015-05-05T00:00:00||+1d-1m").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Anchored(new DateTime(2015,05,05))
        .Add("1d")
        .Subtract(TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1)));

Fractional timesedit

Date math expressions within Elasticsearch do not support fractional numbers. To make working with Date math easier within NEST, conversions from string, TimeSpan and double will convert a fractional value to the largest whole number value and unit, rounded to the nearest second.

Expect("now+1w").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(TimeSpan.FromDays(7)));

Expect("now+1w").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("1w"));

Expect("now+1w").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(604800000));

Expect("now+7d").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("7d"));

Expect("now+30h").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(TimeSpan.FromHours(30)));

Expect("now+30h").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("1.25d"));

Expect("now+90001s").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(TimeSpan.FromHours(25).Add(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1))));

Expect("now+90000s").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(TimeSpan.FromHours(25).Add(TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(1))));

Expect("now+1y").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("1y"));

Expect("now+12M").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("12M"));

Expect("now+18M").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add("1.5y"));

Expect("now+52w").WhenSerializing(Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(TimeSpan.FromDays(7 * 52)));

Roundingedit

Rounding can be controlled using the constructor, and passing a value for rounding

Expect("now+2s").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(new DateMathTime("2.5s", MidpointRounding.ToEven)));

Expect("now+3s").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(new DateMathTime("2.5s", MidpointRounding.AwayFromZero)));

Expect("now+0s").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(new DateMathTime(500, MidpointRounding.ToEven)));

Expect("now+1s").WhenSerializing(
    Nest.DateMath.Now.Add(new DateMathTime(500, MidpointRounding.AwayFromZero)));

Equality and Comparisonsedit

DateMathTime supports implements equality and comparison

DateMathTime twoSeconds = new DateMathTime(2, DateMathTimeUnit.Second);
DateMathTime twoSecondsFromString = "2s";
DateMathTime twoSecondsFromTimeSpan = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2);
DateMathTime twoSecondsFromDouble = 2000;

twoSeconds.Should().Be(twoSecondsFromString);
twoSeconds.Should().Be(twoSecondsFromTimeSpan);
twoSeconds.Should().Be(twoSecondsFromDouble);

DateMathTime threeSecondsFromString = "3s";
DateMathTime oneMinuteFromTimeSpan = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1);

(threeSecondsFromString > twoSecondsFromString).Should().BeTrue();
(oneMinuteFromTimeSpan > threeSecondsFromString).Should().BeTrue();

Since years and months do not contain exact values

  • A year is approximated to 365 days
  • A month is approximated to (365 / 12) days
DateMathTime oneYear = new DateMathTime(1, DateMathTimeUnit.Year);
DateMathTime oneYearFromString = "1y";
DateMathTime twelveMonths = new DateMathTime(12, DateMathTimeUnit.Month);
DateMathTime twelveMonthsFromString = "12M";

oneYear.Should().Be(oneYearFromString);
oneYear.Should().Be(twelveMonths);
twelveMonths.Should().Be(twelveMonthsFromString);

DateMathTime thirteenMonths = new DateMathTime(13, DateMathTimeUnit.Month);
DateMathTime thirteenMonthsFromString = "13M";
DateMathTime fiftyTwoWeeks = "52w";

(oneYear < thirteenMonths).Should().BeTrue();
(oneYear < thirteenMonthsFromString).Should().BeTrue();
(twelveMonths > fiftyTwoWeeks).Should().BeTrue();
(oneYear > fiftyTwoWeeks).Should().BeTrue();